Archive for August, 2007


The Art Cities


Some of the cities are very old and full of art…

Moscow, Rome, Venice, Vatican, Istanbul and etc.

Let’s see some of the famous buildings by photographer Andy Clapp objective.


Arabian horses


History of the Arab/Arabian Horse

The Arab or Arabian horse originates from the desert lands of Asia and the most famous are the horses of the Bedouin Arabs, known as the Original or Elite Arab. Through selective breeding the Bedouins developed an Arab horse which was tough and yet beautiful. It was these Arab horses that were used as a calvary horse by the Moslems and taken to North Africa and into Spain and France. Many Arab horses were left behind when the Moslems left and were left to breed with local horses creating such breeds as the Andalusian horse. The UK imported Arab horses in the late nineteeth and early twentieth century from Arabia.

Height of the Arab/ArabianHorse

The Arab horse stands 14.1 to 15 hh.

Colour of the Arab/ArabianHorse

Arab horses are most usually bay or chestnut but grey is also seen.

Characteristics of the Arab/ArabianHorse

The Arab horse has a small head with concave profile, large eyes and small muzzle, arched neck, sloping shoulder, strong level back, strong hindquarters, strong legs. Tail carried high, fast and free action, plenty of stamina.

Temperament of the Arab/ArabianHorse

Arab horses are brave, spirited and intelligent.

Uses of the Arab/Arabian Horse

The Arab horse is used as a general riding horse, for horse racing, and is particularly suited to endurance.


meteor showers


What are meteor showers?

An increase in the number of meteors at a particular time of year is called a meteor shower.

Comets shed the debris that becomes most meteor showers. As comets orbit the Sun, they shed an icy, dusty debris stream along the comet’s orbit. If Earth travels through this stream, we will see a meteor shower. Depending on where Earth and the stream meet, meteors appear to fall from a particular place in the sky, maybe within the neighborhood of a constellation.

Meteor showers are named by the constellation from which meteors appear to fall, a spot in the sky astronomers call the radiant. For instance, the radiant for the Leonid meteor shower is located in the constellation Leo. The Perseid meteor shower is so named because meteors appear to fall from a point in the constellation Perseus.

What are shooting stars?

“Shooting stars” and “falling stars” are both names that people have used for many hundreds of years to describe meteors — intense streaks of light across the night sky caused by small bits of interplanetary rock and debris called meteoroids crashing and burning high in Earth’s upper atmosphere. Traveling at thousands of miles an hour, meteoroids quickly ignite in searing friction of the atmosphere, 30 to 80 miles above the ground. Almost all are destroyed in this process; the rare few that survive and hit the ground are known as meteorites.


When a meteor appears, it seems to “shoot” quickly across the sky, and its small size and intense brightness might make you think it is a star. If you’re lucky enough to spot a meteorite (a meteor that makes it all the way to the ground), and see where it hits, it’s easy to think you just saw a star “fall.”

How can I best view a meteor shower?

If you live near a brightly lit city, drive away from the glow of city lights and toward the constellation from which the meteors will appear to radiate.

For example, drive north to view the Leonids. Driving south may lead you to darker skies, but the glow will dominate the northern horizon, where Leo rises. Perseid meteors will appear to “rain” into the atmosphere from the constellation Perseus, which rises in the northeast around 11 p.m. in mid-August.

After you’ve escaped the city glow, find a dark, secluded spot where oncoming car headlights will not periodically ruin your sensitive night vision. Look for state or city parks or other safe, dark sites.

Once you have settled at your observing spot, lay back or position yourself so the horizon appears at the edge of your peripheral vision, with the stars and sky filling your field of view. Meteors will instantly grab your attention as they streak by.

How do I know the sky is dark enough to see meteors?

If you can see each star of the Little Dipper, your eyes have “dark adapted,” and your chosen site is probably dark enough. Under these conditions, you will see plenty of meteors.

What should I pack for meteor watching?

Treat meteor watching like you would the 4th of July fireworks. Pack comfortable chairs, bug spray, food and drinks, blankets, plus a red-filtered flashlight for reading maps and charts without ruining your night vision. Binoculars are not necessary. Your eyes will do just fine.


Jesus…Mary…And six sentence!


The Jesus and The Mary…Salam to prophet Jesus (a.s) and his mother Heaven woman Mary(Marium)

We muslims love and respect Jesus because we believe all of the prophets sent by Allah. And the last prophet Mohammad(s.a.v) is the servant of Allah and His prophet too…

There is a surah about Jesus and Mary in Quran and the name is “Mary-Marium”


QURAN ( ENGLISH ) Surah name: The MARY
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

1. Kaf. Ha Ya Ayn. sad.(Arabic letters)
2. (This is) a mention of the Mercy of thy Lord to His servant Zakariya.
3. Behold! he cried to his Lord in secret,
4. Praying: “O my Lord! infirm indeed are my bones, and the hair of my head doth glisten with gray: but never am I unblest, O my Lord, in my prayer to Thee!
5. “Now I fear (what) my relatives (and colleagues) (will do) after me: but my wife is barren: so give me an heir as from Thyself,-
6. “(One that) will (truly) inherit me, and inherit the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord! one with whom Thou art well-pleased!”
7. (His prayer was answered): “O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be YahyẠ(John)on none by that name have We conferred distinction before.”
8. He said: “O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?”
9. He said: “So (it will be) thy Lord saith, ‘That is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!’ “
10. (Zakariya) said: “O my Lord! give me a Sign.” “Thy Sign,” was the answer, “Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights, although thou art not dumb.”
11. So Zakariya came out to his people from him chamber. He told them by signs to celebrate Allah’s praises in the morning and in the evening.
12. (To his son came the command): “O John! take hold of the Book with might”: and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth,
13. And pity (for all creatures) as from Us, and purity: He was devout,
14. And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.
15. So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!
16. Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.
17. She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent her Our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.
18. She said: “I seek refuge from thee to (Allah) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear Allah.”
19. He said: “Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord, (to announce) to thee the gift of a pure son.
20. She said: “How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?”
21. He said: “So (it will be): thy Lord saith, ‘That is easy for Me: and (We wish) to appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us’. It is a matter (so) decreed.”
22. So she conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place.
23. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree. She cried (in her anguish): “Ah! would that I had died before this! would that I had been a thing forgotten!”
24. But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palm-tree): “Grieve not! for thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thee;
25. “And shake towards thyself the trunk of the palm-tree: It will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.
26. “So eat and drink and cool (thine) eye. And if thou dost see any man, say, ‘I have vowed a fast to (Allah) Most Gracious, and this day will I enter into no talk with any human being'”
27. At length she brought the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms). They said: “O Mary! truly a strange thing has thou brought!
28. “O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!”
29. But she pointed to the babe. They said: “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?”


He said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah. He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet;


“And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live;


“(He hath made me) kind to my mother, and not overbearing or unblest;


“So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)”!


Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute.


It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is.


Verily Allah is my Lord and your Lord: Him therefore serve ye: this is a Way that is straight.
37. But the sects differ among themselves: and woe to the Unbelievers because of the (coming) Judgment of an awful Day!
38. How plainly will they see and hear, the Day that they will appear before Us! but the unjust today are in error manifest!
39. But warn them of the Day of Distress, when the matter will be determined: for (behold,) they are negligent and they do not believe!
40. It is We Who will inherit the earth, and all beings thereon: to Us will they all be returned.
41. (Also) mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham. He was a man of Truth, a prophet.
42. Behold, he said to his father: “O my father! Why worship that which heareth not and seeth not, and can profit thee nothing?
43. “O my father! to me hath come knowledge which hath not reached thee: so follow me: I will guide thee to a Way that is even and straight.
44. “O my father! serve not Satan: for Satan is a rebel against (Allah) Most Gracious.
45. “O my father! I fear lest a Chastisement afflict thee from (Allah) Most Gracious, so that thou become to Satan a friend.”
46. (The father) replied: “Art thou shrinking from my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will indeed stone thee: Now get away from me for a good long while!”
47. Abraham said: “Peace be on thee: I will pray to my Lord for thy forgiveness: for He is to me Most Gracious.
48. “And I will turn away from you (all) and from those whom ye invoke besides Allah. I will call on my Lord: perhaps, by my prayer to my Lord, I shall be not unblest.”
49. When he had turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and each one of them We made a prophet.
50. And We bestowed of Our Mercy on them, and We granted them lofty honor on the tongue of truth.
51. Also mention in the Book (the story of) Moses: for he was specially chosen, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
52. And We called him from the right side of Mount (Sinai), and made him draw near to Us, for converse in secret.
53. And, out of Our Mercy, We gave him his brother Aaron, (also) a prophet.
54. Also mention in the Book (the story of) Ismail: He was (strictly) true to what he promised, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
55. He used to enjoin on his people prayer and charity, and he was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord.
56. Also mention in the Book Idr he was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet:
57. And We raised him to a lofty station.
58. Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace,- of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of (Allah) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.
59. But after them there followed a posterity who missed prayers and followed after lusts soon, then, will they face Destruction,-
60. Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness: for these will enter the Garden and will not be wronged in the least,-
61. Gardens of Eternity, those which (Allah) Most Gracious has promised to His servants in the Unseen: for His promise must (necessarily) come to pass.
62. They will not there hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace: And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and evening.
63. Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who guard against evil.
64. (The angels say:) “We descend not but by command of thy Lord: to Him belongeth what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between: and thy Lord never doth forget,-
65. “Lord of the heavens and of the earth, and of all that is between them; so worship Him, and be constant and patient in His worship: knowest thou of any who is worthy of the same Name as He?”
66. Man says: “What! When I am dead, shall I then be raised up alive?”
67. But does not man call to mind that We created him before out of nothing?
68. So, by thy Lord, without doubt, We shall gather them together, and (also) the Satans (with them); then shall We bring them forth on their knees round about Hell;
69. Then shall We certainly drag out from every sect all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against (Allah) Most Gracious.
70. And certainly We know best those who are most worthy of being burned therein.
71. Not one of you but will pass over it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished.
72. But We shall save those who guarded against evil, and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein, (humbled) to their knees.
73. When Our Clear Signs are rehearsed to them, the Unbelievers say to those who believe, “Which of the two sides is best in point of position and fairer in assembly?”
74. But how many (countless) generations before them have We destroyed, who were even better in equipment and in glitter to the eye?
75. Say: “Whoever goes astray, (Allah) Most Gracious extends (the rope) to them, until, when they see the warning of Allah (being fulfilled) – either in punishment or in (the approach of) the Hour,- they will at length realize who is worst in position, and (who) weakest in forces!
76. “And Allah doth advance in guidance those who seek guidance: and the things that endure, Good Deeds, are best in the sight of thy Lord, as rewards, and best in respect of (their) eventual return.”
77. Hast thou then seen the (sort of) man who rejects Our Signs, yet says: “I shall certainly be given wealth and children?”
78. Has he penetrated to the Unseen, or has he taken a contract with the Most Gracious?
79. Nay! We shall record what he says, and We shall add and add to his punishment.
80. To Us shall return all that he talks of and he shall appear before Us bare and alone.
81. And they have taken (for worship) gods other than Allah, to give them power and glory!
82. Instead, they shall reject their worship, and become adversaries against them.
83. Seest thou not that We have set the Satans on against the Unbelievers, to incite them with fury?
84. So make no haste against them, for We but count out to them a (limited) number (of days).
85. The day We shall gather the righteous to (Allah) Most Gracious, like a band (presented before a king for honors,)
86. And We shall drive the sinners to Hell, (like thirsty cattle driven down to water,-)
87. None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from (Allah) Most Gracious.
88. They say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son!”
89. Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous!
90. At it the skies are about to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin,
91. That they attributed a son for the Most Gracious.
92. For it is not consonant with the majesty of the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.
93. Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to the Most Gracious as a servant.
94. He does take an account of them (all), and hath numbered them (all) exactly.
95. And everyone of them will come to Him singly on the Day of Judgment.
96. On those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, will the Most Gracious bestow love.
97. So have We made the (Qurᮩ easy in thine own tongue, that with it thou mayest give Glad Tidings to the righteous, and warnings to people given to contention.
98. But how many (countless) generations before them have We destroyed? Canst thou find a single one of them (now) or hear (so much as) a whisper of them?

Blessing for today!


Oh my Allah!

If you didn’t want to create me, I couldn’t have a name and I was absent. 

You gave me a chance to be!

If you didnt let me to have food and water, I was hungry and thirsty…

If you wished that trouble to me, I couldn’t sleep in safety…

Oh my Allah!

You gave me a life! You made me as a human!

You gave me eyes to see your beauties…

You gave me ears to hear the sound of hapiness…

You gave me mind to think and you gave me a secret soul to feel and you gave me heart to love…

It was not difficult for you, you would create me as any creatures in the world but you wished me as a human…

I’ m servant of you my Allah! Help me about my belief that it is stronger and give me peace in  my inner  world.

Give me a place to pray you in my world to protect myself from the carelessness and dark powers in my body…

Give me knowledge mind to distinguish between good things and bad things devil whispers.



Give me good words to tell and share you with my brothers and sisters.

Protect me from the laziness and ignorence and Hell which is a prison from fire…



Movie trailer:The Lake house


The movie centers around lonely Dr. Kate Forster (Sandra Bullock) who, on a winter morning in 2006, reluctantly leaves the beautiful lake house where she has been living for a job in a Chicago hospital. On her way to Chicago, she leaves a note for the lake house’s new tenant asking him to kindly forward her mail and telling him the paw prints by the front door and the box in the attic were there when she moved in.

However, Alex Wyler (Keanu Reeves), the new tenant, sees a different lake house, one which was neglected, dirty, and there were certainly no paw prints and no box in the attic. He disregards Kate’s letter until a few days later; he is painting the handrails on the walkway to the house and a stray dog runs through the paint tray leaving paw prints where Kate said they would be. He runs back into the lake house and re-reads her letter. He writes back to Kate, wanting to know more about the paw prints and leaves the letter in the mailbox.

Meanwhile, after witnessing a horrible accident where a bus hits and kills a man, Kate needs some time away so she visits the lake house. Nobody appears to be living there, but she notices the mail box flag is up. She finds a letter addressed to her from Alex but dated 2004. In her second letter to Alex, Kate writes: “Oh, by the way it is 2006. Has been all year, ask anyone.” Kate mentions she is presently [in 2006] living at 1620 North Racine in Chicago. Alex goes to that address [in 2004], with the intention of personally delivering a letter to her at her apartment, and discovers that an unfinished construction site exists at 1620 North Racine. Alex estimates that the site will not be finished for another 18 months. They begin to understand they are living 2 years apart: he in 2004 and she in 2006. The lake house, its enchanted mailbox, and the stray dog (whom Kate has named Jack, even though Jack is a female) are the only things linking them together.

As Kate and Alex continue to correspond through the mailbox, they find themselves falling in love. Because Kate is in the future, she can tell Alex specific places to look for her in 2004. On one occasion, she asks Alex to bring her back something important (a gift from her father; her favorite novel by Jane Austen called Persuasion), which she left two years ago during a train station meeting with her then-beau, Morgan. Alex goes to the station and finds the item and sees Kate with long hair. Even though he has the item, he does not place it in the mailbox to return it to her. Instead, he says that he will return it to her personally, “one way or the other.” Alex sends her a personalized map of Chicago and takes her on a walking tour of his favorite places in the city one Saturday morning. He leaves her a loving message on a brick wall at the end written in 2004, that she sees in 2006. The message was “Kate, I am here with you. thank you for spending this Saturday together”. The word “together” was written because Kate would have loved it if Alex were there to walk with her.

Late one afternoon, as Alex’s female suitor Mona is flirting with him and Alex is ignoring her advances, Jack runs off. Alex chases Jack across town and ends up at Kate’s boyfriend Morgan’s house. Mona catches up with Alex and Jack, and Morgan invites them to Kate’s surprise birthday party. At the party, Kate is frustrated with Morgan’s sincere but smothering ways. Alex walks outside on the porch and finds Kate alone, and he begins to talk to her. Alex would like to let this earlier version of Kate know that her “letter paramour” is here in person. Kate does not know who Alex is, as their relationship is in her future. However, the two share a dance and a romantic moment, but it is interrupted by Morgan and Mona.

Later, they discuss the birthday party, and she reveals to Alex that she liked him that night. This is the first time she remembers what he looks like.

Crisis enters Alex’s life when his estranged father has a heart attack and shortly thereafter dies. Kate somehow discovers his death certificate at the time he dies. She rushes to the mailbox and as a gift to Alex, she places a book in the mailbox: a tribute to Alex’s father that Kate has obtained, not yet published in Alex’s time. Alex weeps over his lost father.

Determined to bridge the distance between them at last and unravel the mystery behind their extraordinary connection, they tempt fate by arranging to meet. Alex makes a reservation in 2004 for a date in 2006 at Il Mare, a fancy restaurant (an homage to the original Korean motion picture), but only Kate appears. Alex does not show up. The next day Kate writes Alex a letter telling Alex of this fact, but he doesn’t understand. “Something must have happened” he responds. Kate retreats, believing she will never have happiness. She urges Alex to move on She tells him about Valentine’s Day 2006 when a man died “in her arms”, and that she needs to live her own life. She asks Alex not to contact her again. Alex leaves her a growing pile of letters in the mailbox that she never retrieves. He is brokenhearted and decides to leave the lake house. He places the box in the attic that Kate referred to in her first letter.

Alex appears to Morgan (his truck packed for his move to the city) and hands him the keys to the lake house. At this time Jack the dog seems to be left with Morgan and now becomes Kate’s dog. Alex drives off.

He moves to Chicago. Kate renews her relationship with Morgan, but doesn’t appear to be happy. She and Alex do not exchange letters as Kate no longer goes to the mailbox. Almost one year passes.

One afternoon, Kate is watching an old movie in one room of her Chicago apartment while Morgan is working in another room. They are apparently living together. Perturbed when Morgan asks her to turn the TV down, she turns it off, and irritated, walks into their bedroom where a squeaky floorboard finally gets her attention. She stomps on it and it completely comes off revealing a small package hidden underneath. It is her Jane Austen book that Alex has carefully left for her. He has left a flower marking a specific piece of text that touches Kate’s heart. She realizes she still loves Alex.

New Year Eve 2005 finds Alex at some party sadly overlooking the city. It is New Year’s Eve 2007 for Kate.

On Valentine’s Day 2008, Kate and Morgan arrange to meet at an architectural firm unknowingly owned by Alex’s brother, Henry. They are renovating an old house. As they exit Kate notices a drawing on the wall of the lake house and inquires as to its artist. When told it is Alex Wyler, she asks as to his whereabouts and is told he died in an accident 2 years ago this day. This explains why Alex didn’t show up at the Il Mare. He had already “died.” What Kate didn’t realize was she left Alex a clue (in 2006 that he read in 2004) as to her future whereabouts, a clue that would not click in until that warm day on February 14, 2006 (at Daley Plaza) and would have devastating consequences. But this date (in Kate’s time) is just when Alex and Kate started the correspondence at the lake house. She had left him only 1 letter, but for Alex, 2006 means he has “known” Kate for 2 years already. The only memory Kate has of Alex at this point is at her birthday party at Morgan’s house when she danced and then kissed Alex to the Paul McCartney song, “This Never Happened Before”.

On Valentine’s Day 2006 Alex and his brother Henry are walking outside and a comment is made about the unusually warm weather. When Alex asks his brother go out later, Henry tells him he has other plans with his girlfriend Vanessa. It is, after all, Valentine’s Day. Something clicks in Alex’s head and he takes off for the lake house and retrieves a specific letter. He knows where Kate is going to be that day and intends on finding her.

The 2008 Kate has also put everything together and dashes out of the office and races to the lake house to frantically warn Alex via the mailbox that HE is the man who “died in her arms” that day. She does not know if he will receive it in time or not. She tells him NOT to go to the plaza but to wait 2 years and go to the lake house where she is now. For the first time she expresses her love for him. He receives the letter in time, and sees her in the plaza, and changing history, does NOT cross the street and escapes his original fate. Kate, weeping at the mail box, hears somebody drive up to the lake house. It is Alex. In the end of the movie, Alex and Kate share a passionate kiss and walk into the lake house together.


about bollywood films…


Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالی وڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema. Bollywood is only a part of the Indian film industry.

The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood, it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary.

Bollywood is commonly referred to as Hindi cinema, even though Hindustani, the substratum common to both Hindi and Urdu, might be more accurate. Bollywood consists of the languages of Hindi, Urdu and English. The use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. The connection between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani is an extremely contentious matter and is discussed at length in the linked articles relating specifically to the languages.

There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see films that feature dialogue with English words and phrases, even whole sentences. There is growing number of English films. A few films are also made in two or even three languages (either using subtitles, or several soundtracks).

Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning “of films”).

Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema.

Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lacklustre movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Suraiyya, Noor Jehan, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Alka Yagnik, etc among female playback singers and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. Mohammed Rafi is often considered the arguably finest of the singers that sung for Bollywood, followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of filmi songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films’ songs along with the films’ regular soundtrack albums.


The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif), or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is not unusual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location and/or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a pas-de-deux (a dance and ballet term, meaning “dance of two”), it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a “picturisation”.

Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing; other times, a song is an externalisation of a character’s thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. In this case, the event is almost always two characters falling in love.


Bollywood films have always used what are now called “item numbers“. A physically attractive female character (the “item girl”), often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film, performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. In older films, the “item number” may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. The dancer Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. In modern films, item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences, dancing at celebrations, or as stage shows.

For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film’s soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often times the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.

[edit] Dialogues and lyrics

Main article: Bollywood songs

The film script or lines of dialogue (called “dialogues” in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people.

Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Some movies, however, have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or old-fashioned courtly Urdu in Mughal-era historical films. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. In fact, many movie scripts are first written in English, and then translated into Hindi.

Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally.

Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. This phenomenon is not unlike the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e.g., Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe). Song lyrics are usually about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use Arabo-Persic Urdu vocabulary.


Bichhdey abhi to hum, bas kal parso,
jiyoongi main kaisey, is haal mein barson?
Maut na aayi, teri yaad kyon aayi,
Haaye, lambi judaayi!

              We have been separated just a day or two,

How am I going to go on this way for years?
Death doesn’t come; why, instead, do these memories of you?
Oh; this long separation!

Sanjay Dutt (born 29 July 1959) is an Indian Bollywood actor. A two time Filmfare Awards winner, he is the son of Bollywood stars Sunil Dutt and Nargis. On 31 July 2007, Sanjay Dutt was sentenced to a jail term of 6 years for illegal possession of firearms acquired from terrorist acquaintances, who were responsible for the 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts.

Early days

Sanjay Dutt was born to one of Bollywood’s most well-known star couples, Nargis Dutt and Sunil Dutt. He has two sisters, Priya Dutt and Namrata Dutt. He was educated at the Lawrence School Sanawar. At the age of 12 he made his first film appearance in his father’s film Reshma Aur Shera where he had a small role as a qawali singer.

While he was still in high school, Sanjay Dutt became a drug addict, probably as he was unable to handle the pressure of being the child of two celebrities.[2] His drug problems worsened his mother’s health, who was already diagnosed with cancer. Nargis Dutt died a few weeks before Sanjay Dutt’s first film, Rocky, was to be released. A heartbroken Dutt took to doing more drugs. His father sent him to a rehab center in Miami. After attending a rehabilitation program in the United States, a sober Dutt started working in films again.

Rise as a notable actor

Sanjay Dutt acted in several successful films in the 1980s, including Vidhaata (1982), Naam (1986), and Hathyar (1989). He was reportedly director Subhash Ghai‘s first choice to play the lead in Hero (1983), but after witnessing Sanjay Dutt in his drug phase during the shooting of Vidhaata, Ghai picked Jackie Shroff in his place. Sanjay Dutt married Richa Sharma in 1987 (a small-time actress discovered by Dev Anand) who had nursed him back from a lung injury. A year later, the couple had a baby girl, Trishala. Just two months after Trishala’s birth, Risha was diagnosed with cancer and the couple separated. Richa moved to United States with her daughter to live with her parents while Dutt pursued his career in Bollywood. After his wife succumbed to brain tumor in 1996, a bitter custody battle between Dutt and his in-laws over the custody of his only daughter ensued, which Dutt lost. Sanjay Dutt’s sister, Namrata, married actor Kumar Gaurav, the son of yesteryears Bollywood star Rajendra Kumar.

Sanjay Dutt resurrected his cinema career with movies like Sadak (1991) and Saajan (1991). He received his first Filmfare nomination for the best actor in a lead role, for the film Saajan. His breakthrough role came in Subhash Ghai‘s Khalnayak (1993), which became a huge hit and gave his career a boost. He received a filmfare nomination for the film.

Vishal Devgan, born (April 2, 1967 in Delhi, India), popularly known as Ajay Devgan is a two-time National Film Award-winning actor who appears in Bollywood films. Beginning as an action hero in the early 1990s, Devgan matured early in his career, as is widely regarded now as one of the finest and the most serious actors in the indian industry.

Aamir Hussain Khan (/ɑːmir xɑːn/; Hindi: आमिर ख़ान, Urdu: عامر حسین خان) (born March 14, 1965) in Mumbai, India, is a highly acclaimed and a National Film Award-winning Indian film actor and producer.



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